Turfkruijer Part 6

Continued from Part 5

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27.  HENRI JACOB6 HANGJAS-DUVEEN (JACOB LEVI5 HANGJAS, LEVIE JOSEPH JOZALE4, JOSEPH JOZALE ABRAHAM HANGJAS3 TURFKRUIJER, LEVY JOEL HANGJAS2, JOEL JOSEPH HANGJAS1) was born 1848 in Haarlem, Nth Holland, Netherlands, and died 1877 in Haarlem, Nth Holland, Netherlands.  He married BETJE DUVEEN 05 Dec 1872 in Haarlem, daughter of JOSEPH DUVEEN and EVA VAN MINDEN.  She was born 04 Nov 1850 in Meppel, and died 1918.

Notes for HENRI JACOB HANGJAS-DUVEEN:
Henri changed his surname to Duveen


Children of HENRI HANGJAS-DUVEEN and BETJE DUVEEN are:
    i.    JOEL CHARLES7 DUVEEN, b. 1876; d. 1904, Transvaal, South Africa.

Notes for JOEL CHARLES DUVEEN:
Joel emigrated to Transvaal and was involved in military action between 1899 and 1901 at the Transvaal. He was a Boer commander. Born into a prominent Dutch-Jewish family in 1876, he immigrated to the Transvaal towards the end of the century and settled at Louis Trichardt. When war broke out, he joined the Zoutpansberg Commando, first under Commandant E Mare, then under Commandant de Villiers, and served on the Natal Front. Duveen was one of the burghers who helped storm Spioenkop on 24 Jan- uary 1900. During a hand-to-hand fight, having already exhausted his cartridges, he noticed a British officer threatening to shoot his veldkornet. With remarkable quick-thinking, he threw his empty rifle to his shoulder and shouted 'If you shoot him, I will shoot you!' The startled officer apparently dropped his weapon on the spot.

Duveen was a bittereinde, refusing to surrender even after the fall of Pretoria (despite the fact that he was technically not yet a citizen of the ZAR and therefore not obliged to fight at all). He was on the staff of General Beyers, who took advantage of his restless, dare-devil nature by selecting him for dangerous intelligence work behind enemy lines. Not satisfied with this, Duveen persuaded two fellow officers, M Dommisse and H Mentz to form a small scouting party with him. 'Consequently,' Dommisse recalled, 'we were always on some adventurous undertaking, when the commando was resting. On one occasion, we tried to derail a train a few miles from Naboomspruit station. The main force of the twenty youngsters remained with Col Menu, who would derail the train. He [Duveen and his party] was surrounded, but fought himself free without a casualty.' In this last incident, Duveen's horse was shot under him. He eluded capture by diving into a thick bush and remaining there until his pursuers gave up the search. On another occasion, he came to the rescue when Menu and Dommisse were being pursued by hundreds of mounted men, counter-attacking with a mere seven others and enabling his friends to ride free.

Late in 1901, Duveen was wounded in the stomach during an attack on the fortified camp of Pruisen near Potgietersrust. He was sent to Potgietersrust hospital, where he was captured on 1 October and shipped off to India for the last eight months of the war. On his release, he settled in Pietersburg, marrying and opening a store there. Sadly, Duveen did not live much longer after peace was made. In 1904, he contracted Blackwater Fever while on a journey to the Lowveld and the illness proved fatal. He was taken, already dying, to a nearby store belonging to an Englishman where, implacable to the end, he insisted on being laid out on the floor. 'I am going to die,' he is reputed to have said, 'but I refuse to die on an Englishman's bed. Put me on the floor.' And there he died.

    ii.    JAMES HENRY DUVEEN, b. 1873, Haarlem; d. 21 Nov 1911; m. ESTHER DUVEEN, 21 Nov 1911; b. 07 Nov 1870, Hull; d. 22 Nov 1949.

Notes for JAMES HENRY DUVEEN:
James (Jack) was an Art dealer in London. His residence: Hampstead Lane, Kenwood London

    iii.    EVALINE DUVEEN.
    iv.    HENRI FRANÇOIS HANGJAS, b. Abt. 1878, Den Haag; m. ROZA ROOZENDAAL; b. Abt. 1883, Deventer.
    v.    ? DUVEEN.


28.  CATHARINA JOHANNA6 HANGJAS (JACOB LEVI5, LEVIE JOSEPH JOZALE4, JOSEPH JOZALE ABRAHAM HANGJAS3 TURFKRUIJER, LEVY JOEL HANGJAS2, JOEL JOSEPH HANGJAS1) was born 1855.  She married JACOB ROMEIN 23 Nov 1876 in Haarlem.  He was born Abt. 1853 in Leeuwarden.

Children of CATHARINA HANGJAS and JACOB ROMEIN are:
    i.    MARIA JULIA AMALIA7 ROMEIN, b. Abt. 1877, Haarlem; d. 27 Nov 1948, Renkum; m. JAN WARMOLD ALINGH; b. Abt. 1870, Winschoten.
    ii.    JACOBA ANTJE TJAKO ROMEIN, b. Abt. 1886, Haarlem; d. 20 May 1915; m. CHRISTOPH GEORGE SIGISMUND BEGEMANN, 20 May 1915, Haarlem; b. Abt. 1890, Tandjong Pandan.
    iii.    CATHARINA ROMEIN, b. Abt. 1890, Haarlem; m. ALEXANDER CARLO FIORANI, 10 Feb 1916, Amsterdam; b. Abt. 1887, Den Haag.


29.  JANSJE6 HANGJAS (JACOB LEVI5, LEVIE JOSEPH JOZALE4, JOSEPH JOZALE ABRAHAM HANGJAS3 TURFKRUIJER, LEVY JOEL HANGJAS2, JOEL JOSEPH HANGJAS1) was born 1856 in Haarlem.  She married WILLEM HOOIJER 19 May 1881 in Haarlem, son of CORNELIS HOOIJER and LENA SCHEFFER.  He was born Abt. 1855 in Leeuwarden.

Children of JANSJE HANGJAS and WILLEM HOOIJER are:
    i.    EMMA7 HOOIJER, b. Abt. 1875, Haarlem; m. JACOB PIETER KREB, 19 Apr 1906, Alkmaar; b. Abt. 1871, Beemster.
    ii.    JANSJE HOOIJER, b. Abt. 1884, Haarlem; m. ARIJ SLUITER; b. Abt. 1883, Stad Almelo.
    iii.    HENDRINA HOOIJER, b. Abt. 1894, Alkmaar; m. HERMANUS SCHOONHOVEN, 16 May 1916, Bergen; b. Abt. 1884, Alkmaar.


30.  JOHANNES6 HANGJAS (JACOB LEVI5, LEVIE JOSEPH JOZALE4, JOSEPH JOZALE ABRAHAM HANGJAS3 TURFKRUIJER, LEVY JOEL HANGJAS2, JOEL JOSEPH HANGJAS1) was born 1850 in Haarlem, and died 22 Oct 1927.  He married TONIA ZWEERS 29 Jan 1880 in Rheden, daughter of GERRIT ZWEERS and BERENDIEN TEUNISSEN.  She was born 1853 in Rheden, and died 10 Oct 1928 in Worth-Rheden.

Child of JOHANNES HANGJAS and TONIA ZWEERS is:
    i.    JACOB HENRI7 HANGJAS, b. Abt. 1880, Haarlem; d. 08 Oct 1917, Bloemendaal; m. (1) GEERTJE SLOT, 18 May 1905, Haarlem; b. Abt. 1884, Purmerend; m. (2) ENA JOHANNA BLEI, Aft. 1906.


31.  LOUIS MARINUS ANTONIUS6 HANGJAS (MARCUS LEVI5, LEVIE JOSEPH JOZALE4, JOSEPH JOZALE ABRAHAM HANGJAS3 TURFKRUIJER, LEVY JOEL HANGJAS2, JOEL JOSEPH HANGJAS1) was born Abt. 1853 in Leiden.  He married NEELTJE VAN DER WERFF 16 Jul 1876 in Zandvoort.  She was born Abt. 1857.

Children of LOUIS HANGJAS and NEELTJE WERFF are:
    i.    GERRIT7 HANGJAS, b. Bergen op Zoom; d. 25 Dec 1923; m. JACOBA NOORDHUIZEN.
    ii.    CAREL GERRIT HANGJAS, b. 18 Nov 1876, Zandvoort.
    iii.    WILLEM HENNIE HANGJAS, b. 08 Jul 1878, Zandvoort.
    iv.    LOUISA ANTONIA HANGJAS, b. Abt. 1887; d. 22 May 1909, Bloemendaal.
    v.    LOUIS MARINUS ANTONIUS HANGJAS, b. Abt. 1895, Haarlem; m. MARIA BAARS, 23 Dec 1925, Amsterdam; b. Abt. 1903.


32.  SAARTJE6 HANGJAS (MOZES LEVI5, LEVIE JOSEPH JOZALE4, JOSEPH JOZALE ABRAHAM HANGJAS3 TURFKRUIJER, LEVY JOEL HANGJAS2, JOEL JOSEPH HANGJAS1) was born Abt. 1842 in Haarlem, Nth Holland, Netherlands, and died 05 Mar 1908 in Rotterdam.  She married (2) JACOB ABRAHAM YER Bef. 1876.  He died Bef. 1886.  She married (3) ISRAËL SCHAAP 10 Nov 1886 in Amsterdam, son of RUBEN SCHAAP and HESTER LEVIE.  He died 21 May 1927 in Rotterdam.

Child of SAARTJE HANGJAS is:
55.    i.    JESAIA7 HANGJAS, b. 14 Sep 1862, Amsterdam; d. 11 Mar 1942, Amsterdam.


Children of SAARTJE HANGJAS and JACOB YER are:
    ii.    ABRAHAM7 YER, b. Abt. 1876, Rotterdam; m. KAATJE STAD, 07 Oct 1896, Rotterdam; b. Abt. 1877.
    iii.    JUDITH YER, b. 15 Dec 1878, Amsterdam; d. 16 Nov 1969, Rotterdam; m. MARCUS SPREEKMEESTER, 23 Dec 1896, Rotterdam; b. 30 Jul 1878, Rotterdam; d. 01 Feb 1943, Auschwitz.


Child of SAARTJE HANGJAS and ISRAËL SCHAAP is:
    iv.    RACHEL SAARTJE7 SCHAAP, b. Abt. 1881, Amsterdam; d. 04 Oct 1916, Rotterdam; m. JACOB HERTOG, 05 Nov 1902, Rotterdam; b. Abt. 1872, Frankfurt.


33.  MARCUS JOSEPH6 HANGJAS (JOSEPH MARCUS5, MARCUS MORDECHAI JOSEPH JOZALE HANGJAS4 TURFKRUYE, JOSEPH JOZALE ABRAHAM HANGJAS3 TURFKRUIJER, LEVY JOEL HANGJAS2, JOEL JOSEPH HANGJAS1) was born 03 Jul 1839 in Haarlem, Nth Holland, Netherlands, and died 15 Apr 1898 in Leiden.  He married (1) RIEKA NAAR 18 Dec 1872 in Haarlem, Nth Holland, Netherlands, daughter of JACOB NAAR and ESTHER MURSIA.  She was born Abt. 1851 in Haarlem, Nth Holland, Netherlands.  He married (2) BETJE PILLER 22 Oct 1891 in Leiden, daughter of ELKAN PILLER and HANNAH KOEKOEK.  She was born 11 Feb 1857 in Gravenhage, Netherlands, and died 20 Mar 1943 in Sobibor.

Children of MARCUS HANGJAS and RIEKA NAAR are:
56.    i.    JUDIK7 HANGJAS, b. 30 Mar 1874, Haarlem, Nth Holland, Netherlands; d. 30 Sep 1937, Antwerpen.
    ii.    ESTHER HANGJAS, b. Abt. 1875, Haarlem, Nth Holland, Netherlands; m. HARTOG BLITS, 26 Sep 1894, Amsterdam; b. Abt. 1875.


Children of MARCUS HANGJAS and BETJE PILLER are:
57.    iii.    ELKAN7 HANGJAS, b. 08 Oct 1893, Leiden; d. 31 Jan 1944, Auschwitz.
58.    iv.    JOSEPH MARCUS HANGJAS, b. 15 Apr 1898, Leiden; d. 31 Jan 1943, Monowitz.
59.    v.    HANNA HANGJAS, b. 23 Oct 1894, Leiden; d. 13 Mar 1943, Sobibor.
    vi.    JOSEPH MARCUS HANGJAS, b. 16 Sep 1892, Leiden; d. 22 Mar 1893, Leiden.


34.  SIMON6 HANGJAS (JOSEPH MARCUS5, MARCUS MORDECHAI JOSEPH JOZALE HANGJAS4 TURFKRUYE, JOSEPH JOZALE ABRAHAM HANGJAS3 TURFKRUIJER, LEVY JOEL HANGJAS2, JOEL JOSEPH HANGJAS1) was born 13 Aug 1857 in Haarlem, and died 16 Aug 1876.  He married JUDIKJE MANHEIM 19 Mar 1873 in Haarlem, daughter of ABRAHAM MANHEIM and RACHEL WALLACH.  She was born 13 Aug 1857 in Den Helder.

Children of SIMON HANGJAS and JUDIKJE MANHEIM are:
60.    i.    REGINA7 HANGJAS, b. 23 Oct 1875, Haarlem; d. 26 Oct 1942, Auschwitz.
    ii.    JOSEPH HANGJAS, b. 26 Jan 1874, Haarlem; d. 28 May 1943, Sobihor; m. (1) DEBORA MARIANNE FRANK, 26 Jan 1874, Haarlem; b. 19 Jun 1879, Haarlem; d. 28 May 1943, Sobihor; m. (2) DEBORA MARIANNE FRANK, 07 Aug 1901, Zaandam; b. 1879, Haarlem.


35.  SARA6 HANGJAS (JOSEPH MARCUS5, MARCUS MORDECHAI JOSEPH JOZALE HANGJAS4 TURFKRUYE, JOSEPH JOZALE ABRAHAM HANGJAS3 TURFKRUIJER, LEVY JOEL HANGJAS2, JOEL JOSEPH HANGJAS1) was born 12 Jul 1854 in Haarlem, Nth Holland, Netherlands, and died 23 Nov 1942 in Amsterdam, Netherlands.  She married LEVIE KOSTER 11 Jun 1879 in Haarlem, son of WILLEM KOSTER and RACHEL POLAK.  He was born 16 Feb 1856 in Hoorn, Netherlands, and died 12 Oct 1920 in Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Children of SARA HANGJAS and LEVIE KOSTER are:
    i.    REGINA7 KOSTER, b. 16 Sep 1879, Haarlem, Nth Holland, Netherlands; d. 16 Jun 1884, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    ii.    HENRIETTE KOSTER, b. 02 Nov 1880, Amsterdam, Netherlands; d. 01 May 1882, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
61.    iii.    MARIANNE KOSTER, b. 10 Nov 1881, Amsterdam, Netherlands; d. 1936, Den Haag, Netherlands.
    iv.    JOHANNA KOSTER, b. 05 Apr 1883.
62.    v.    WILLEM KOSTER, b. 03 Dec 1884, Amsterdam, Netherlands; d. 1945, Netherlands.
    vi.    JOSEPH KOSTER, b. 10 Mar 1887, Amsterdam, Netherlands; d. 22 Apr 1887, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    vii.    SIMON KOSTER, b. 24 Jun 1888, Amsterdam, Netherlands; d. 11 May 1889, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
63.    viii.    MARCUS (MAX) KOSTER, b. 14 Apr 1890, Amsterdam, Netherlands; d. 03 Dec 1973, Bronx, New York.
    ix.    JOSEPH KOSTER, b. 11 Nov 1893, Amsterdam, Netherlands; d. 1942, Polish Concentration Camp.
64.    x.    LEONARD KOSTER, b. 11 Nov 1896, Amsterdam, Netherlands; d. 11 Nov 1940, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    xi.    HENRIETTE KOSTER, b. 1898, Amsterdam, Netherlands; d. 1943, Polish Concentration Camp.


36.  CORNELIA6 PAARDEBEK (JANNETJE MARCUS5 HANGJAS, MARCUS MORDECHAI JOSEPH JOZALE HANGJAS4 TURFKRUYE, JOSEPH JOZALE ABRAHAM HANGJAS3 TURFKRUIJER, LEVY JOEL HANGJAS2, JOEL JOSEPH HANGJAS1) was born Abt. 1850 in Haarlem.  She married IZAAK WALLACH 01 Jul 1874 in Haarlem, son of SALAMON WALLACH and SARA VAN EMBDEN.  He was born 06 Dec 1850 in Haarlem.

Children of CORNELIA PAARDEBEK and IZAAK WALLACH are:
    i.    ANDRIES IZAAK7 WALLACH, b. 09 Jul 1871, Haarlem.
    ii.    SALOMON WALLACH, b. 24 Jul 1876, Haarlem; d. 13 Mar 1877.
    iii.    MOZES WALLACH, b. 27 Sep 1877, Haarlem.
    iv.    SARA WALLACH, b. 12 Dec 1881, Haarlem.
    v.    LEVI WALLACH, b. 07 Mar 1883, Haarlem; d. 22 Aug 1930, S-Gravenhage; m. ENGLETJE DE GROOT, 18 Sep 1912, Amsterdam.
    vi.    SALOMON WALLACH, b. 15 Sep 1884, Haarlem.
65.    vii.    HIJMAN (HERMAN) WALLACH, b. 19 Apr 1890, Haarlem; d. 19 Oct 1942, Katowice, Poland.
66.    viii.    JANSJE WALLACH, b. 15 Apr 1892, Haarlem; d. 22 Oct 1942, Auschwitz.


37.  NAATJE6 PAARDEBEK (JANNETJE MARCUS5 HANGJAS, MARCUS MORDECHAI JOSEPH JOZALE HANGJAS4 TURFKRUYE, JOSEPH JOZALE ABRAHAM HANGJAS3 TURFKRUIJER, LEVY JOEL HANGJAS2, JOEL JOSEPH HANGJAS1) was born Abt. 1851 in Haarlem.  She married (1) SAMUEL VLESSING 09 Dec 1874, son of HARTOG VLESSING and SCHOONTJE HANGJAS.  He was born Abt. 1850 in Texel, Noord Holland, Netherlands, and died Bef. 1888.  She married (2) NATHAN SPIER 07 Jan 1888 in Haarlem.  He was born 23 Mar 1860 in Arnhem, Gelderland, Netherlands, and died 20 Jan 1941 in Arnhem, Gelderland, Netherlands.

Children of NAATJE PAARDEBEK and SAMUEL VLESSING are:
    i.    HARTOG7 VLESSING, b. 16 Nov 1875, Haarlem, Nth Holland, Netherlands; d. 10 May 1877, Haarlem, Nth Holland, Netherlands.
    ii.    JANSJE VLESSING, b. 16 Dec 1879, Haarlem, Nth Holland, Netherlands; d. 11 Apr 1880, Haarlem, Nth Holland, Netherlands.
    iii.    MIETJE VLESSING, b. 06 Apr 1885, Haarlem, Nth Holland, Netherlands; d. 24 May 1889, Haarlem, Nth Holland, Netherlands.
    iv.    MOSES VLESSING, b. Abt. 1877, Haarlem, Nth Holland, Netherlands; m. JOHANNA KOK, 30 Jun 1921; b. Abt. 1879.


38.  SAMUEL6 VLESSING (SCHOONTJE SJEINE5 HANGJAS, MARCUS MORDECHAI JOSEPH JOZALE HANGJAS4 TURFKRUYE, JOSEPH JOZALE ABRAHAM HANGJAS3 TURFKRUIJER, LEVY JOEL HANGJAS2, JOEL JOSEPH HANGJAS1) was born Abt. 1850 in Texel, Noord Holland, Netherlands, and died Bef. 1888.  He married NAATJE PAARDEBEK 09 Dec 1874, daughter of MOZES PAARDEBEK and JANNETJE HANGJAS.  She was born Abt. 1851 in Haarlem.

Children are listed above under (37) Naatje Paardebek.

39.  IZAAK JOSEF6 HANGJAS (MAARTJE MARCUS5, MARCUS MORDECHAI JOSEPH JOZALE HANGJAS4 TURFKRUYE, JOSEPH JOZALE ABRAHAM HANGJAS3 TURFKRUIJER, LEVY JOEL HANGJAS2, JOEL JOSEPH HANGJAS1) was born Abt. 1846 in Haarlem.  He married (1) SOPHIA VAN KAMPE 03 Mar 1869 in Haarlem, daughter of CORNELIS VAN KAMPE and CATHARINA STOUTENBEEK.  She was born Abt. 1844 in Haarlem, and died Bef. 1878.  He married (2) JOHANNA MARIA GODEFROOIJ 05 Jun 1878 in Haarlem, daughter of JOHANNES GODEFROOIJ and JOHANNA JANSEN.  She was born Abt. 1860 in 5 June 1878.

Children of IZAAK HANGJAS and JOHANNA GODEFROOIJ are:
67.    i.    IZAAK JOSEF7 HANGJAS, b. Abt. 1879, Haarlem.
    ii.    MARETJE HANGJAS, b. Abt. 1885, Haarlem; d. 18 Jan 1927, Bloemendaal.
    iii.    WILHELMUS HANGJAS, b. Abt. 1886, Haarlem; m. (1) JANSJE VEENINGS, 05 May 1909, Haarlem; m. (2) JANSJE BLOMMAERT, 20 Aug 1925, Amsterdam; b. Abt. 1891, Haarlem.
    iv.    CORNELIS HANGJAS, b. 31 Mar 1888, Haarlem; d. 09 Jul 1889.
    v.    JOHANNA MARIA HANGJAS, b. Abt. 1890, Haarlem; m. (1) SIEGER NOORDENBOS, 13 Jul 1910, Amsterdam; b. Abt. 1889, Amsterdam; m. (2) ANTHONIE LAGERWEIJ, 07 Aug 1919, Angerlo; b. Abt. 1889, Angerlo.


40.  BETJE6 DUVEEN (JOSEPH5, ENOCH ELKAN JOSEPH4, JOSEPH MOSES HANGJAS3, MOSES JOEL HANGJAS2 TURFKRUIJER, JOEL JOSEPH HANGJAS1) was born 04 Nov 1850 in Meppel, and died 1918.  She married (1) HENRI JACOB HANGJAS-DUVEEN 05 Dec 1872 in Haarlem, son of JACOB HANGJAS and JOHANNA MIEZERUS.  He was born 1848 in Haarlem, Nth Holland, Netherlands, and died 1877 in Haarlem, Nth Holland, Netherlands.  She married (2) JOZEF MOZES DUVEEN 1883, son of MOZES DUVEEN and SAARTJE VECHT.  He was born 17 Feb 1853 in Zwolle.

Notes for HENRI JACOB HANGJAS-DUVEEN:
Henri changed his surname to Duveen

Children are listed above under (27) Henri Jacob Hangjas-Duveen.

41.  JOEL JOSEPH6 DUVEEN (JOSEPH5, ENOCH ELKAN JOSEPH4, JOSEPH MOSES HANGJAS3, MOSES JOEL HANGJAS2 TURFKRUIJER, JOEL JOSEPH HANGJAS1) was born 30 Apr 1843 in Meppel, and died 09 Nov 1908 in Hyeres, France.  He married ROSETTA BARNETT. 

Notes for JOEL JOSEPH DUVEEN:
Joel emigrated to Hull, UK in 1886. He founded Duveen Brothers art dealership and his residence was Elms, Hampstead Heath and  21 Old Bond Street, London . Joel was knighted by Edward VII as Sir Joseph Joel Duveen.

'Duveen'
By MERYLE SECREST

t is generally agreed that, of the select band of women enterprising enough to be called collectors in the nineteenth century, Lady Charlotte Schreiber won hands down. Possessed of considerable means, dauntless energy, and the zest for the chase which is the natural prerequisite for the making of great collections, Lady Charlotte knew no barriers when it came to her own quarry. These included lace, fans, and playing cards, and, above all, ceramics. She loved china with a passion in the days when hardly anyone knew enough to recognize Chelsea, Bow, Worcester, and Derby, or cared, leaving such treasures to be picked up in any old junk shop for derisory sums. The more she collected, in those halcyon days of the 1860s and 1870s, the more enthralled she became by the chase. As her son Montague Guest wrote, "She hunted high and low, through England and abroad; France, Holland, Germany, Spain, Italy, Turkey, all were ransacked; she left no stone unturned, no difficulty, discomfort, fatigue, or hardship of travel daunted her, or turned her from her purpose, and she would come back, after weeks on the Continent ... rich with the fruits of her expeditions"

No doubt she benefited from those tips by anonymous scouts that figure so largely in such narratives. On one occasion she learned that there were some wonderful pieces of china for sale in a tiny farmhouse miles from any town or railway. In the pursuit of such hidden treasure a collector needed to be infinitely ready to conjure up any means of transportation available. There is an eyewitness account of this particular hunt, so typical of Lady Charlotte's enterprise, by someone who had also received a tip, perhaps from the same source. He, too, was hot on the trail, which involved an inordinately slow and lengthy journey by train. As this hunter neared the quarry he observed a passenger coach on a road parallel to the tracks coming toward him. The fly roared past at breakneck speed, but he managed to catch a glimpse of a certain indomitable face. He knew, before he reached his destination, that he had arrived too late.

The disappointed buyer was Joel Joseph Duveen, a man who, it must be said, was her equal in terms of energy, dash, and devil-may-care determination. It is sometimes thought that his son Joseph Duveen, the most spectacular art dealer the world has ever known, appeared in all his singularity from a back street in the Yorkshire town of Hull. This convenient fiction glides over the fact that the future Lord Duveen was in all essential respects modeled after his equally formidable father. Here was a man who, in the best Horatio Alger tradition, began from nothing, coming from nowhere, and at the end of a scintillating career, as Sir Joseph Duveen, was dining with aristocrats and on intimate terms with kings, rich, successful, and feared. To take charge of an establishment that has risen to the heights of Old Bond Street is not quite the same as having reached there in the first place; but that is another part of the story.

The riddle of Joseph Duveen starts with the story of his father, and in both men one sees characteristics that were to imprint these personalities on their age; men who, like Isambard Kingdom Brunel, for instance, but metaphorically, threw bridges across chasms and hollowed out mountains to reach their goals. An early photograph of Joel Joseph shows a wide, high-cheeked face, one ear dextrously cocked, as if awaiting the latest rumor, a fussily trimmed beard and mustache, broad, flat, pudgy hands and the insouciant air of a man who will leap up in a second and dash out of the door. The expression is alert and good-natured, optimistic; and there is something about the smile that suggests someone not only prepared to challenge authority but used to discovering, as Alice did in Wonderland, that most barriers built by custom and snobbery are nothing but packs of cards.

It is true that Joel Joseph was self-made, but to say that he came from nowhere is perhaps not quite the case. Looking down the Duveen lineage one finds generational mirrors refracting ever fainter reflections of collectors and dealers in furniture, porcelains, tapestries, and Old Master paintings. Jacques Duveen, who later took the name of Jack, wrote a valuable account of the Duveen family origins and the early life of Joel Joseph, based on conversations he had with his uncle in the years before the latter's death in 1908; he called it The Rise of the House of Duveen. Jack claimed to have traced the family pedigree back to the seventeenth-century Du Vesnes (hence, Duveen), who were related to Eberhard Jabach. This head of a family of wealthy merchant bankers was a Sephardic Jew who moved from Spain to France during one of the early persecutions. He was well enough known to have been painted by Sir Anthony van Dyck and Charles le Brun, and was a distinguished art collector, one of the principal buyers at the sale of the collection of the ill-fated Charles I (1600-1649), another exemplary patron of the arts, particularly Italian painting. Jack Duveen wrote in Art Treasures and Intrigue, "The tradition is that when [Jabach] returned from the sale he entered Paris at the head of a convoy of wagons loaded with artistic conquests, like a Roman victor at the head of a triumphal procession." Even Jabach's considerable resources were not limitless, and when he, a few years later, was obliged to sell 110 of his best paintings to Louis XIV (1638-1715), the collection formed the nucleus of what would become the Louvre. Among the most famous works were three incomparable paintings by Giorgione: Rustic Concert, Holy Family with St. Catherine, and St. Sebastian and Donor; Titian's Christ at Emmaus, Entombment, Jupiter and Antiope, and Mistress; Correggio's Antiope; and Caravaggio's Death of Mary: acknowledged masterpieces of the Italian Renaissance. All the glory that such names conjured up became synonymous with a fabulous past, and the name of Duveen, so carelessly corrupted from the aristocratic Du Vesne, a constant noble reminder of what had been lost.

During the French Revolution one of Jabach's descendants, Henoch Elkan Duveen, emigrated from Paris to Holland, where, in 1810, he took over a small iron foundry in Meppel. Joel later told A. C. R. Carter that his grandfather had been an army contractor for horses and their equipment to the King of Saxony. So the legend began that Joel had begun life as a blacksmith's apprentice, and in fact he is listed as such in the Meppel registry, according to a Dutch chronicler of the Duveen family. Joel's father, Joseph Henoch Duveen (Henoch Elkan's son), was more than a blacksmith, however. The same account notes that he was a manufacturer of stoves and heaters, specializing in iron safes fitted with secret locks. A smithy was attached to the foundry and Joel claimed to have learned how to make horseshoes as part of a lengthy apprenticeship while being groomed for a future in manufacturing. Starting them young and making them proficient in every aspect of the business became one of his maxims when the time came to train his own sons.

One of Henoch Elkan's cousins, Levy Joseph-the names are confusing, since they recur down through the generations, with hardly any alteration-also fled from France during the same period and somehow assumed the surname of Hangjas, no one knows quite how. He established a branch of the family which carried on the tradition of trading in antiques, setting himself up in business in The Hague. The two branches remained in contact, and there was more than one intermarriage between first cousins. One male member of the Hangjas branch even assumed the name of Duveen when he married one of the Duveen girls.

Managing an ironworks would seem something of a departure from the inherited family passion, but even that had a precedent. Jack Duveen wrote that his grandfather Jacob Levy Hangjas, Levy Joseph's son, dealt in old metals as well as running a wholesale business in antiques and had a warehouse and wharf on the river Spaarne for the dismantling of steamships. Joel's father had also dealt in antiques before he took over the ironworks and passed that business on to one of his daughters, a girl who married the Ridder (Chevalier) van Esso, or Essoo. To give a business to a girl was unusual in those days. Girls were more often moved around like pawns in the game of tightening family connections or consolidating spheres of influence, a game at which art dealers excelled, like minor principalities. None played it better than the Duveens, the Hangjas branch in particular. Several Hangjas girls married leading art dealers of the day: De Maan, Van Schaak, and a man named Levy Fresco, said to have owned the gallery that served as the model for Dickens's novel The Old Curiosity Shop. By such prudent methods intricate chains of association were forged that could have satisfying consequences.

Joel Joseph Duveen, born in Meppel on April 30, 1843, was named for the great-great-great-grandfather who was descended on the female line from Eberhard Jabach. No doubt that significant point was impressed on him at an early age, and if he showed any talent for the antique business, there was no shortage of teachers. Jack Duveen relates that Joel was indeed a willing pupil under the tutelage of his aunt, the one who had married the Ridder van Esso. Her specialty is not described, but it would have been axiomatic that a Dutch dealer would have a sophisticated knowledge of ceramics. He or she would know, in the case of old Delft polychrome pottery, then becoming increasingly scarce and prized, that a Paris firm was making a clever profit from nice copies. He would learn about the confusing marks separating genuine old silver from its mundane, therefore modern, facsimiles. He would have to know how Oriental porcelain, called Oost Indiesch in Holland, had been made, so that he could instantly recognize the genuine and rare from its many counterfeits. He would have studied those hieroglyphics adorning the bases of vases and ornaments and learned to decipher their significance. He would be able to tell when a piece of china had been repaired or tampered with, no matter how delicate the hairline of evidence. Similarly, he would know where to look for those minute clues verifying antique Chippendale from virtually identical reproductions. Thanks to intensive training, he could discern an Old Master beneath layers of discolored varnish and defacing restorations and be equally able to spot a fake, no matter how persuasively painted in the ateliers of Rome and Paris. He would be able to make a discovery at an auction and then know how to conceal that fact by a show of indifference. The first imperative was that he could not be fooled and the second, that he learn to dissemble, hiding his real feelings; perhaps the most important lesson of all.

As for the chase itself, the feints, subterfuges, and stratagems, the deceits, intrigues, and double dealings, learning all that took a lifetime. Such knowledge was never written down, but learned by rote like great epic poems until a student could predict every move, giving that extra negotiating advantage that makes all the difference. He would also have become an aesthete, because any dealer who wanted to attract wealthy clients had to have a collector's instinct. The curious fact was that most of them did. The Duveens either had or developed superb memories and an uncanny ability to spot hidden treasures. They called it the Duveen eye.

Joel's future seemed assured, but then there was a family tragedy. In his irresistible biography of Duveen, published in 1951, the playwright S. N. Behrman has demoted Joseph Henoch Duveen to a blacksmith and describes his wife as a simple farm woman with a penchant for collecting bits of cheap Delft. This picturesque version of events is the probable reason why Jack Duveen was moved to write his own account in 1957. He writes that Joel's mother, Eva van Minden of Zwolle, was no ignorant country girl but the well-educated daughter of an East India merchant. She appears not to have had the least interest in collecting, but inspired her son with her love of books and music and made sure he was properly educated. Joel was her firstborn; then came two daughters, Jette and Betje (Betsy), Jack's future mother, and finally Henoch (Henry), born in 1855 and twelve years Joel's junior. Eva Duveen was beautiful and cultivated but physically fragile, and an invalid for the final years of her life, dying at the age of fifty-two on August 20, 1864. Her parting words to her firstborn, then aged twenty-one, were to look after his sisters and nine-year-old brother and care for his father. This last piece of advice turned out to be prescient because, after Eva's death, Joseph turned to drink for consolation, dangerously neglecting his business affairs. Joel had been trained to take charge, and suddenly the full burden of managing the ironworks had fallen on him. His efforts failed, largely due to his inexperience of the ways of the world. He had neglected to grease the palm of a government inspector, and a lucrative contract was revoked as a result, effectively bankrupting the firm.

Jack Duveen makes no mention of recriminations between father and son, but these seem likely, even inevitable. Besides, Joel was hardly a boy anymore. Duveens, who began working as early as sixteen or seventeen, were expected to be making their mark by their early twenties. Joel had been given a major responsibility and had made a mess of it. He had to leave home-the sooner, the better. It is charming to think of him setting out for England with boxes of his mother's Delft under his arm, as Behrman narrates. The prosaic truth, according to Jack Duveen, is that an uncle gave him a letter of introduction to some wholesale importers of Dutch produce in Hull on the North Sea named Doumouriez and Gotschalk. Leaving his father and younger sisters and brother behind, he sailed for England in 1866 and was hired as a lowly apprentice-an indignity for someone his age-at the minuscule sum of fifteen shillings a week.



Children of JOEL DUVEEN and ROSETTA BARNETT are:
68.    i.    ESTHER7 DUVEEN, b. 07 Nov 1870, Hull; d. 22 Nov 1949.
69.    ii.    JOSEPH JOEL DUVEEN, b. 14 Oct 1869, Hull; d. 1939.
70.    iii.    CHARLES JOEL DUVEEN, b. 02 Dec 1871, Kingston Upon Hull, Yorkshire, England; d. 1940.
71.    iv.    LOUIS DUVEEN, b. 21 Feb 1874, Hull; d. 04 Mar 1920.
72.    v.    EDWARD JOEL DUVEEN, b. 20 Mar 1875, Hull; d. 1946.
73.    vi.    BENJAMIN JOEL DUVEEN, b. 07 Apr 1876; d. 1959, New York.
    vii.    HENRY DUVEEN, b. 03 Nov 1878; d. 1963; m. PHYLLIS HOPE STEVENSON, 1911.
    viii.    ANNETTE EVELINE DUVEEN, b. 1879; d. 1954; m. VICTOR A WALKER, 1918.
    ix.    ERNEST DUVEEN, b. 10 May 1883; d. 1939, Paris.
    x.    EVALINE DUVEEN, b. 1884; d. 1944; m. ARTHUR ABRAHAMS.
74.    xi.    FLORENCE DUVEEN, b. 1886; d. 1945.
75.    xii.    JOHN JOEL DUVEEN, b. 13 Jan 1873, Hull; d. 15 Oct 1951.


Continued in Part 7